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锚索缺陷导致亨伯河上发生撞船事故

来源: 2018-11-05 15:41:21 责任编辑:国际海员服务中心网 人气:

 英国海上事故调查局于2018年3月1日发布了关于‘凯尔特精神’号货船的事故报告,该船与英国一艘调查船和一艘杂货船在亨伯河上相撞。英国海上事故调查局称锚索存在缺陷是造成这一事件的原因。经过调查,英国海上事故调查局得出结论。

 
事件经过
2018年2月28日,‘凯尔特精神’号杂货船驶离英格兰格罗夫波特,沿着特伦特河(River Trent)驶向亨伯河(River Humber)的霍姆霍克(Holme Hook)锚地。
 
在前往拉脱维亚里加之前,船长想要从锚地的驳船加载40吨燃料。该船处于空载状态,船上有一名引水员和一名港务局海事实习生。
 
过了一会儿,入港船舶“凯尔特勇士”号停泊在霍克河锚地附近,靠近亨伯河河口。在水中有5节锚链,船开始脱锚。该船的引水员指示再放一节锚链,并将此事报告给亨伯河船舶交管站(VTS)。放下6节锚链后,船舶停泊,“凯尔特勇士” 号在D和E泊位之间修整。离船前,引水员建议船长将发动机设置为待机状态;引水员还将此信息传达给船舶交管站。为此,船长将船舶主发动机设置为待机状态,由驾驶台控制。
 
 “凯尔特精神”号的船长将大桥锚碇的值班任务移交给了二副。接管值班任务时,二副基于斯珀恩角东部和“大西洋探索者”的调查研究,在雷达显示器上设置了可变距离标记,在西北方向锚定了3节锚链。二副指示值班海员(AB)执行例行火灾和甲板巡逻任务。
 
此外,“凯尔特精神”号开始在西北方向脱锚。9分钟后,在值班交接期间,船舶二副看着雷达屏幕,发现距离“大西洋探索者”的距离有所减少。他绘制了船舶在海图上的位置,证实了该船正在拖动船锚,随后他通知了船长。他还打电话给位于机舱的轮机员,并命令他启动主发动机,他通过手持无线电指示值班海员往前走并检查锚索。
 
当二副返回驾驶台时,他注意到船速已经增至0.9节,并且他从首楼甲板值班海员那里得知锚索处于拉紧状态。
 
03点06分,“大西洋探索者”的驾驶台值班员在甚高频(VHF)无线电16频道上呼叫“凯尔特精神”号,并警告两船可能即将发生碰撞。
 
“凯尔特精神”号的二副接听了电话,并建议准备发动引擎。
 
对他而言,“大西洋探索者”的驾驶台值班员应打电话到机舱,并指示值班轮机员启动主发动机。他还向船长通报了最新情况。
 
当船舶交管站进一步探测时,“凯尔特精神”号的二副预测启动发动机需要5到10分钟的时间。
 
在等待控制主发动机传递到驾驶台时,“凯尔特精神”号的大副试图使用船舶的船首推进器避碰。
 
过了一会儿,交管站向“凯尔特精神”号发出警告,告知其有可能与“大西洋探索者”号发生碰撞。不久后,交管站打电话给“大西洋探索者”号,询问能否再下放几节锚索。这位驾驶台值班员说,船上共7节锚索,已经放下6节了。
 
03点12分,“凯尔特精神”号的船尾与“大西洋探索者”号的船头相撞。与此同时,“凯尔特精神”号的轮机员启动了主发动机并将控制权交给了驾驶台。由于“凯尔特精神”号的船尾挂在“大西洋探索者”号的锚索上,因此船长提前发动船舶,但仍无法实现船舶机动。
 
然后交管站在VHF 16频道上打电话给“凯尔特勇士”号,并询问船舶发动机是否正在运转。该驾驶台值班员证实在运转,然后交管站警告说,“凯尔特精神”号和“大西洋探索者”号相撞,正在向其前进,并建议“凯尔特勇士”号起锚。
 
然后,“凯尔特勇士”号船长立即开展船尾推进工作,但“凯尔特精神”号的左舷还是与“凯尔特勇士”号的船头相撞。这一撞使得“凯尔特精神”号从“大西洋探索者”号的锚索上脱离,三艘船开始向西北方向移动。
 
可能的原因
调查此事件后,英国海上事故调查局得出结论,以下原因导致了该起撞船事故:
 
•由于在潮汐范围和环境条件下锚索不足,导致船舶拖锚前行;
 
•由于位置监测间隔不够,未及时发现船舶拖锚;
 
•值班员未将船舶脱锚前行一事及时通知船舶交管站或附近船舶;
 
•因为船舶发动机无法立即准备就绪,所以船舶无法及时机动避撞。
 
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Insufficient anchor cable responsible for ships collision on River Humber
 
UK MAIB released its report about the cargo vessel 'Celtic Spirit' which collided with a survey vessel and a general cargo vessel on the River Humber, England, on 1 March 2018. UK MAIB said that insufficient anchor cable was responsible for this incident.
 
The incident
On 28 February 2018, the general cargo vessel Celtic Spirit departed Groveport, England and headed down the River Trent to the Holme Hook anchorage on the River Humber.
 
The master wanted to load 40t of fuel from a bunker barge at the anchorage before beginning passage to Riga, Latvia. The vessel was in ballast and had a river pilot and a port authority marine apprentice on board.
 
A little later, the inbound vessel, Celtic Warrior, anchored in the Hawke anchorage, near to the mouth of the River Humber. With 5 shackles of cable in the water, the vessel began to drag its anchor. The vessel’s pilot instructed that a further shackle of cable be payed out and reported the incident to Humber Vessel Traffic Services (VTS). With 6 shackles in the water, the anchor held and Celtic Warrior came to rest between positions D and E. Before leaving the vessel, the pilot advised the master to keep his engine on standby; the pilot also communicated this information to VTS. In response, the master kept the vessel’s main engine running in bridge control.
 
What is more, Celtic Spirit’s master handed over the bridge anchor watch to the second officer (2/O). On taking over the watch, the 2/O set variable range markers on the radar display based on Spurn Head to the east and the research and survey vessel Atlantic Explorer, which was anchored 3 cables to the northwest. The duty able-bodied seaman (AB) was released by the 2/O to conduct routine fire and deck rounds.
 
In addition, Celtic Spirit began to drag anchor in a north-westerly direction. Nine minutes later, during preparations for the watch handover, the vessel’s 2/O looked at the radar screen and noticed that the distance to Atlantic Explorer had decreased. He plotted the vessel’s position on the chart, which verified that the vessel was dragging its anchor, and called the master. He also called the engineer in his cabin and ordered him to start the main engine, and he instructed the duty AB, via hand-held radio, to go forward and check the anchor cable.
 
When the 2/O returned to the bridge he noticed that the ship’s speed had increased to 0.9kt, and he was notified by the duty AB on the fo’c’sle that the anchor cable was tight.
At 0306, Atlantic Explorer’s bridge watchkeeper called Celtic Spirit on very high frequency (VHF) radio channel 16 and warned about an imminent collision.
 
Celtic Spirit’s 2/O acknowledged the call and advised that his engine was being prepared to start.
 
For his part, Atlantic Explorer’s bridge watchkeeper called his engine room and instructed the duty engineer to start the main engines. He also informed the vessel’s master to the developing situation.
 
When probed further by VTS, Celtic Spirit's 2/O predicted it would take 5 to 10 minutes to start the engine.
 
While waiting for control of the main engine to be passed to the bridge, Celtic Spirit’s C/O tried to avoid the collision using the vessel’s bow thruster.
 
A little later, VTS transmitted a warning to Celtic Spirit to inform that there was a risk of collision with Atlantic Explorer. Shortly after, VTS called Atlantic Explorer and asked if any more anchor cable could be payed out. The bridge watchkeeper said that 6 shackles out of an available 7 had already been payed out.
 
At 0312, Celtic Spirit’s stern collided with Atlantic Explorer’s bow. At the same time, Celtic Spirit’s engineer started the main engine and passed control to the bridge. The master engaged ahead propulsion but could not manoeuvre clear because Celtic Spirit’s stern was fouled on Atlantic Explorer’s anchor cable.
 
VTS then called Celtic Warrior on VHF channel 16 and asked if the vessel’s engines were running. The bridge watchkeeper confirmed that they were and then VTS warned that Celtic Spirit and Atlantic Explorer were dragging anchor towards Celtic Warrior and advised the vessel to weigh anchor.
 
Warrior’s master then immediately engaged astern propulsion but Celtic Spirit’s port quarter collided with Celtic Warrior’s bow. The impact caused Celtic Spirit to detach from Atlantic Explorer’s anchor cable and all three vessels began to set to the northwest.
 
Probable cause
After investigating the incident, UK MAIB concluded that the following led to the collision:
 
The vessel dragged its anchor because insufficient anchor cable had been deployed for the tidal range and the environmental conditions;
 
It was not identified that the vessel was dragging its anchor because the position monitoring interval was not enough;
 
The watchkeeper did not alert Vessel Traffic Services or nearby vessels that the vessel was dragging anchor;
 
The vessel could not manoeuvre in time to prevent the collisions because its engine was not on immediate readiness.
 
 
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